Modern scientists study all aspects of neurosis & insomnia. They want to help patients to get better. Read about some chemicals used for these purposes:
- Sedatives. Substances of this type have a calming effect by regulating the central nervous system in such a way that the processes of inhibition are enhanced and the level of excitation decreases. Compared to benzodiazepines, their soothing and antiphobic effect is less pronounced: they enhance the effect of hypnotic drugs and analgesics but do not cause such side effects as:
- muscle relaxation;
- mental and physical dependence.
Researchers apply these substances to rats and other animals to study neurasthenia, neurosis, hysteria, insomnia, primary forms of hypertension and epilepsy.
It’s quite interesting what was before the above elements:
- Magnesium sulfate (bitter salt), preparations of bromine (sodium bromide, potassium bromide.) Bromides were used for the first time in 1853. Starting from 1869, chloral was applied for the same purposes, which in doses of 0.3 – 0.5 g demonstrate a sedative effect. While in large doses, 2-3 g, the substance causes deep sleep, and can even lead to a coma.
- Of the synthetic compounds, the oldest sedative to relieve anxiety is Mefenazine, originally used as a muscle relaxant. Studies to increase the duration of its action led to the creation of Meprobamate (Meprotan):
An endogenous anxiolytic and, simultaneously, an antidepressant is the nucleoside Uridine, which in its activity is not inferior to Diazepam. We note, however, that another nucleoside, Thymidine, is its functional antagonist, and the precursor of these compounds in the biogenetic chain, behaves like a nootropic agent. The molecular basis of the anxiolytic properties of Uridine is apparently its ability to join benzodiazepine and imipramine receptors. This should explain why when using the antimetabolite 6-azauracil in oncology as a blocker of the pyrimidine biosynthesis, there are cases of mental disorder, similar to the asthenic-depressive syndrome.
- Meprobamate. Similar anxiety is observed in intact animals with initially low levels of endogenous uridine in the brain.
There are certain hopes connected with the search for neurotropic drugs among nicotinic acid derivatives: nicotinamide, which belongs to the endogenous ligands of benzodiazepine receptors. They demonstrate an effect similar to that of benzodiazepines (sedative, anti-stenosis, anti-aggressive.) Structural similarity with tranquilizers of this class is also observed in amides of 2 – amino nicotinic acid containing a tertiary amino group in the C2 pyridine nucleus.
These compounds cause general sedation of experimental animals, reduce spontaneous locomotor activity, and disrupt the orienting-exploratory behavior, with a pronounced anti-hypoxic effect as the leading component in the spectrum of pharmacological activity. The effect of these compositions can be the same as that of nicotinamide but exceeds it in absolute activity by 2–5 times
- Pantogam. This is a new psychopharmacological agent, namely a calcium salt of D. Other variations of it based the special kind of calcium.
As we see, modern science faces a lot of opportunities and new hopes for patients worldwide.